I don't know why this has been such a mystery up to now, because we've been harping on it for, what, ten years? Feldstein writes, "While Martin is focusing primarily on course goals and how those should determine metrics, he’s beginning to raise the question of how individual learner goals should influence course design. And once you start asking that question, it changes everything." Yes it does. That's why we designed MOOCs the way we did. How often have we said this, all the way back to 2008: "you will get students in the class with substantially different goals, including many that do not care about certification at all." I remember reacting against David Merrill's conception of 'learner-centered' at NLII in 2002- "It is learner centered not merely in the sense that it is, as David Merrill would say, 'open-ended', it is learner centered in the sense that the learning is created by the learner. Will it work? It is already working."