My view is that if you view technology as an "intervention" then you are not using it properly. But many people will still appreciate Grainne Conole's detailed argument otherwise. "The framework illustrates how effective implementation of technologies can only be achieved if policy, research and practice are considered in conjunction. Practice is further sub-divided into teacher- and student-practice." This detailed article looks at the history of technology in learning in the U.K., summarizes interventions across contexts, and looks at emergent themes, for example, "a shift in the last five years or so from the web as a content repository and information mechanism to a web that enables more social mediation and user generation of content." The framework is intended to "avoid the failures of the past" by emphasizing the importance of added value and the need to take into account existing practise and culture.