The first sentence of this paper (23 page PDF) makes me want to reframe the learning styles debate. Here's the sentence: "It has been proven that adopting the 'one size fits one' approach has better learning outcomes than the 'one size fits all' one." The paper cites several references to say "an accurate definition the learner’s characteristics influences and increases considerably the capability and efficiency of learning activities." Well, this is learning styles, isn't it? Maybe not a four-term categorization like Kolb's or Fleming's models, but still the same concept. If the learning styles sceptics are right, then it should be true that "one size fits all". This paper adopts exactly the opposite posture, and indeed, so does most literature based on learner models, customization and personalization.