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Stephen Downes

Knowledge, Learning, Community

Known as Chuang-tzu back when I was first studying philosophy, Zhuangzi ( 莊子) was a broadly naturalist philosopher in the Taoist tradition known for a careful study of language, ethics and society (social dàos). As summarized by Hansen: "When we walk the paths in real time, we realize some of the possibilities the path affords... Human social dàos become map-like aids in finding and choosing behaviors. Our knowledge of dàos is indexical. We learned how, acquired our virtuosity, through practice and know-to realize this behavior here now. We have constructed human ways of following nature's paths of opportunity." To me: freedom is finding your own way; finding your own way is the basis of social organization; social organization is what keeps us free.

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Stephen Downes Stephen Downes, Casselman, Canada
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