This is chapter 38 from the enormous Handbook of research on K-12 online and blended learning (2nd ed.). (739 page PDF). It draws the connection between open education and participation. "A participatory culture is an essential contributor to OEP in K-12 learning environments. Participatory cultural skills include: play, performance, simulation, appropriation, multitasking, distributed cognition, collective intelligence, judgment, transmedia navigation, networking and negotiation." Citing the Multiply K-12 OER Project, the authors note that this includes "sharing ideas and resources; relective practice; a connected community; learner generated content; and peer review."