There's a lot going on in this paper (14 page PDF). One aspect contrasts between what students are taught (modern learner-centred approaches) and how the education system functions (treating learners as empty vessels). The second aspect is a largish survey of mobile phone use for professional development by these student teachers. And a third aspect looks at their employment of three models of heutagogy (ir., self-directed learning): interdependent learning , double and triple-loop learning, and communities of practice. Of these, only the third is employed to any significant degree. Andrew Chimpololo conmcludes, "training institutions need to create a conducive environment where learners are provided the freedom to define their own learning paths and determine individual learning styles."