It's a criticism of PISA that has been made before but which may have a new resonance in the pandemic age. "During the pandemic science and scientists find themselves in the spotlight as both potential saviours or as untrustworthy puppets in ways that would have been unthinkable a year ago. Yet science education and science educators are invisible." The researchers argue "science lessons currently emphase facts, while the processes of science is more similar to a 'black box'. They say students are rarely taught about the key processes of scientific research which go on to save lives."