My question to Donald Clark is: what is the performance is not equivalent to a series of steps? Clark, in his description of the 'analysis' phase of ADDIE, distinguishes between 'procedural' and 'rule-based' processes. The procedural process requires that operations be performed in an order, and can be represented as a flow-chart. The rule-based process does not impose an order on the steps, and rather involves the selection of actions according to goals, operations, methods or rules. But what if performance is neither of these? What if there is no mechanism that can break down the performance into correct steps or procedures? I ask, because I think many aspects of performance are like this. The step-by-step or rule-by-rule analysis is a rationalization of performance, an over-simplified abstraction of it for beginners, like paint-by-numbers, and not a description of it, much less a guide to how it may be achieved. I think the key to performance is seeing, is recognition, not analysis, and once you know what must be done, the doing of it is (by comparison) trivial.