Sometimes it feels to me that innovation in educational technology has been frozen for about ten years. That doesn't mean nothing has happened; quite the opposite, actually. But it feels to me that the idea we're working with today are the ideas we were talking about ten years ago. I think there's a lot behind the scenes that will change this, along with high-profile technology, like Zoom, that have had a wide impact. And of course, Coursera is launching an IPO with a multi-billion-dollar valuation today. So there's that. Still. So here we have digital badges, one of many ten-year old ideas that didn't real;ly take off. Does that mean it's dead. No. But there is, I think, a need to consolidate all these ten-year old ideas into a form where they actually work (p.s., that's not Coursera). As Bryan Mathers makes clear, our industry has a lot of chicken-egg problems right now.