Some Differences Between Experts and Novices

Karl Kapp, Kapp Notes, Sept 20, 2012
Commentary by Stephen Downes

Karl Kapp quotes Ruth Clark to argue (convincingly) "'many of the instructional methods that are effective for novices either have no effect or, in some cases, depress the learning of learners with more expertise.' She goes on to say that 'Training designed for learners with greater prior knowledge requires different instruction methods than training designed for novice learners.'" For example, "For experts, the knowledge structure represents phenomena in the domain in relation to higher-order principles... novices represent problems in terms of surface or superficial characteristics."

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