What, exactly, are learning outcomes. There are the explicit things that we can measure, but there's a lot more besides that. "It's possible that we can 'learn', and yet not think and act differently, and yet still carry some value from the experience," writes Julian Stodd. In particular, he looks at three learning outcome phenomena: conversion, where one outcome is intended, but the learner takes something completely different away from it; abstraction, where the learner takes a part of what was learned and keeps it for future reference; and rejection, where what is taught is actually rejected by the learner. In all three cases you wouldn't exactly say 'nothing was learned', but that's what the test would say.
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