The five ways are (quoted):
- Mind the assumptions... Models are often imported from other applications, ignoring how assumptions that are reasonable in one situation can become nonsensical in another.
- Mind the hubris... The complexity of a model is not always an indicator of how well it captures the important features.
- Mind the framing... Results from models will at least partly reflect the interests, disciplinary orientations and biases of the developers.
- Mind the consequences... Quantification can backfire... Undiscriminating use of statistical tests can substitute for sound judgement.
- Mind the unknowns... Acknowledge ignorance... Failure to acknowledge this can artificially limit the policy options and open the door to undesired surprises.