Microsoft Academic Knowledge Graph
I'm not sure exactly what I would do with this, nor how complete it is, but it is definitely worth noting: "a large RDF data set with over eight billion triples with information about scientific publications and related entities, such as authors, institutions, journals, and fields of study. The data set is based on the Microsoft Academic Graph and licensed under the Open Data Attributions license." It could be used for such things as this data-driven history of the philosophy of science.
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