It's hard not to think of Qing philosophy as a fresh wave of thinking that signaled a new way of thinking of oneself and the world. "Vitalism as an expression of Qing philosophy focused on evidence provided by the self, the body, and external things. Opposed to the mysticism of an eternal and transcendent creative power such as principle (li), heaven (tian) or the Way (dao) that represented the essence of being, vitalism was in favor of a view of life grasped from within the actualities of the individual self and the external world." Nice new article in the SEP. See also. Image: Yun Shouping.