"In short," writes Mike Caulfield, "the social media audience becomes one big training pool for your clickbait or disinfo machine." True. But even without social media, there will be no shortage of data for the machines. Consider, for example, the content from our learning management systems. Or our loyalty card programs. Or the telephone listings. There are issues with the input end - biased training data, for example - but the real problems are happening at the application end. That's when this data is used by machine learning algorithms to perpetuate stereotypes, create fake news, teach falsehoods, etc., and this can't be solved by the technology. Nor even by teaching people how to spot fake news. It's a social problem. It's a governance problem.
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