Stephen Downes

Knowledge, Learning, Community
About half way through this 2001 paper you'll find a useful table contrasting three "levels" of interaction: communication, cooperation and collaboration. I wouldn't define it quite this way; I don't like their definition of cooperation: "A machine metaphor can illustrate cooperation in the classroom: different parts of the machine perform different functions and goals, but work together towards a similar end." Nonetheless, I think the table and the discussion are useful. From the sixth annual instructional technology conference (many more papers there).

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Stephen Downes Stephen Downes, Casselman, Canada
stephen@downes.ca

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Last Updated: Jul 27, 2021 10:49 a.m.