This is an important article summarizing the panel on Architectural Frameworks at the IMS symposium in Ottawa in August 2001. Three models of learning objects and learning content management systems (LCMS) are described: Mark Norton's services model, in which learning technology is developed and distributed as a set of interoperable modules; Dan Rehak's layered model, in which the technology is depicted as a service stack where with fundamental infrastructure services supporting learning services which in turn support the user experience provided by 'user agents'; and Scott Thorne's Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) framework that is intended to develop a set of learning technology program interfaces (APIs). As the author notes, it is important to see these models not as conflicting approaches but rather as different ways of viewing the same approach. And the same issues crop up with all three approaches: what is content? And how does content merge with learning? This paper is a great read, lucid, clear, dealing with complex issues with a light touch.
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