Non-Research Citations in the Siemens Research Study
Stephen Downes, Half an Hour,

Defending himself against my criticism of his recently released research study on distance and online learning, George Siemens tweets: Au contraire mon frère. There are many non-research articles cites, with a particular preference toward foundations, consultants, a few blogs and news and magazine articles. The non-research citations are as selective and ill-informed as the formal citations. Personally, I have no objection to citing from supposedly non-research sites; I do it all the time.But I don't do it while claiming to not be doing it. Here they are, collected from the references at the end of the various articles: Allen, C. (2004). Life with alacrity: Tracing the evolution of social software. Retrieved from Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United States, 2011 (Survey Report). Babson Survey Research Group. Retrieved from Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Sloan Consortium. PO Box 1238, Newburyport, MA 09150. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J., & Garrett, R. (2007). Blending in: The extent and promise of blended education in the United States. Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from Azevedo, R. (1993). A meta-analysis on the effects of computer-presented feedback on learning from computer-based instruction. The Department of Education, Concordia University Beinkowski, M., Feng, M., & Means, B. (2012). Enhancing Teaching and Learning Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: An Issue Brief (No. ED-04-CO-0040) (pp. 1–57). US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved from pdf Belanger, Y., & Thornton, J. (2013). Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach. Duke University. Retrieved from handle/10161/6216 Bordón, P., & Braga, B. (2013). Employer Learning, Statistical Discrimination and University Prestige. Retrieved from Bordon_Braga_August2013.pdf Clardy, A. (2009). Distant, On-line Education: Effects, Principles and Practices. Online Submission, Retreived from ERIC Database. Retrieved from http://files.eric. Coughlan, S. (2014, April 8). The irresistible urge for students to talk. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from Dua, A. (2013). Voice of the Graduate. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http:// Eaton, J. S. (2001). Distance learning: Academic and political challenges for higher education accreditation. Council for Higher Education Accreditation Washington, DC. Friedman, T. L. (2012, May 15). Come the revolution. The New York Times. Retrieved from html GSV Advisors. (2012). Fall of the wall: Capital flows to education innovation. Chicago, IL: Global Silicon Valley (GSV) Advisors. Retrieved from Jaggars, S., & Bailey, T. R. (2010). Effectiveness of fully online courses for college students: Response to a Department of Education meta-analysis. Retrieved from http:// Jordan, K. (2013). MOOC Completion Rates: The Data. Retrieved from http://www. Laitinen, A. (2012). Cracking the Credit Hour. New America Foundation. Retrieved from Learned, W. S., & Wood, B. D. (1938). The student and his knowledge: A report to the Carnegie Foundation on the results of the high school and college examinations of 1928, 1930, and 1932. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & Cormier, D. (2010). The MOOC model for digital practice. Retrieved from Articles/MOOC_Final.pdf McGuire, R. (2014). Hacking the hacker school: How the bootcamp is being taken to scale outside the coding world. Retrieved December 20, 2014, from http:// taken-to-scale-outside-the-coding-world/ Naughton, J. (2012, December 29). LinkedIn endorsements turn you into the product. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from technology/2012/dec/30/linkedin-endorsements-turn-you-into-the-product OECD Publishing. (2013). Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. Retrieved from Pappano, L. (2012, November 2). The Year of the MOOC. The New York Times. Retrieved from Paul, D. S. (2001). A meta-analytic review of factors that influence the effectiveness of Web-based training within the context of distance learning. Texas A&M University. Rainie, L. (2010). Internet, broadband, and cell phone statistics. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 5. Retrieved from Internet%20broadband%20and%20cell%20phone%20statistics%20-%20Pew%20 Internet%20Report%20Jan%202010.pdf Selwyn, N., & Bulfin, S. (2014). The discursive construction of MOOCs as educational opportunity and educational threat. MOOC Research Initiative (MRI) - Final Report. Retrieved from Shapiro, J. (2014, February 17). Competency-based degrees: Coming soon to a campus near you. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle. com/article/Competency-Based-Degrees-/144769/ Shedd, J. M. (2003). The History of the Student Credit Hour. New Directions for Higher Education, 2003(122), 5–12. doi:10.1002/he.106 Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. ELearnSpace Blog. Retrieved from Siemens, G. (2014a, July 5). elearnspace › Activating Latent Knowledge Capacity. Retrieved from capacity/ Siemens, G. (2014b, November 18). elearnspace › Digital Learning Research Network (dLRN ). Retrieved from research-network-dlrn/ Thomson, P., Saunders, J., & Foyster, J. (2001). Improving the validity of competencybased assessment. National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Retrieved from Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom. Education Next, 12(1), 82–83. Retrieved from Wasserman, T. (2013, January 3). LinkedIn’s Endorsements Have Become Meaningless. Retrieved December 20, 2014, from meaningless/ Young, J. R. (2012, January 8). “Badges” earned online pose challenge to traditional college diplomas. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https:// Zhao, Y., & Breslow, L. (2013). Literature review on hybrid/blended learning. Retrieved from (Not inmcluding half a dozen Proquest results, no journal cited, can't access database) (Also not including a large number of references from medical journals which had no apparent educational-based oversight)

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